Raw natural gas is a complex mixture of methane, hydrocarbon condensates (natural gas liquids – NGLs), water and contaminants; hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Natural gas processing involves separating methane (CH4) from NGLs and removing entrained contaminants.
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White Paper: On-line monitoring of H2S in refinery gas streams using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)
White Paper: On-line monitoring of H2S in refinery gas streams using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Download a copy of the whitepaper and visit our website to view application notes on other TDLAS measurements in natural gas processing plants.
AbstractOn-line process measurement of the composition of gas streams in refining, fertilizer, and other manufacturingindustries is essential for the optimal operation of different process units within these facilities. Processanalyzers based on gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrochemical technologies are commonly used in these facilities. However, process conditions for certain streams present major challenges for these traditional technologies. Techniques based on optical spectroscopy, including near-infrared (NIR), infrared (dispersive and Fourier transform), and Raman spectroscopy, can provide analysis solutions for these challenging stream conditions. Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for streams containing homonucleardiatomic gases, such as H2 and N2. These gases are key components in many chemical processes involving the creation and use of syngas (H2, CO, and CO2), such as the manufacturing of ammonia and methanol. Hydrogen is also an essential feedstock for the hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and catalytic reforming of varioushydrocarbon ...
On-line, real-time moisture measurements in catalytic reformer hydrogen recycle gas streams help refineries assess catalyst condition and improve process control during normal operation, in-situ catalyst regeneration and dry down.
Natural gas companies turn to standard traceability to end disputes on H2S measurements.
Oil producers find a new revenue stream while going greener, but it comes with a risk.
It was so simple years ago. Whenever oil producers had natural gas vapors building up in the top of holding tanks, they simply vented or flared, after all, they were in the oil business not the gas business. Today those options are becoming less and less available because of environmental regulations while at the same time the market for that “free” gas is expanding. The EPA has issued a number of regulations in recent years monitoring the emissions from hydrocarbon production and storage facilities. These regulations, and the fines that accompany them, have led to new innovations in the industry. Recovering those vapors and selling them to gas purchasers offers two solutions at once: regulatory compliance and new profit streams. Vapor Recovery Units This was all made possible by the introduction of Vapor Recovery Units (VRUs). Liquid hydrocarbons emit ...
Natural gas companies turn to NIST Traceability to end disputes on H2S measurements
Analyzing the Analyzer
Upstream, you have producers and gas processors that deliver natural gas to fill the growing demand for the clean-burning fuel. Downstream, you have hundreds of miles of pipeline infrastructure to deliver the gas to market. In between, at the points of custody transfer, are the multitudes of analyzers that ensure contaminants such as H2S are at low enough levels to protect the pipelines and keep the public safe. This critical measurement prevents corrosion, which in the worst case can lead to pipeline rupture. What if the supplier and user each use a different analyzer? Well, there is a saying in the natural gas industry, “If you have one analyzer you have a measurement, if you have two analyzers, you have an argument.” “Sometimes, you will have a dispute when two different companies are using two different brands,” observed Hunter Brown, ...