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Process Raman Gas Analysis in Ammonia Production and Refining

AbstractOn-line process measurement of the composition of gas streams in refining, fertilizer, and other manufacturingindustries is essential for the optimal operation of different process units within these facilities. Processanalyzers based on gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrochemical technologies are commonly used in these facilities. However, process conditions for certain streams present major challenges for these traditional technologies. Techniques based on optical spectroscopy, including near-infrared (NIR), infrared (dispersive and Fourier transform), and Raman spectroscopy, can provide analysis solutions for these challenging stream conditions. Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for streams containing homonucleardiatomic gases, such as H2 and N2. These gases are key components in many chemical processes involving the creation and use of syngas (H2, CO, and CO2), such as the manufacturing of ammonia and methanol. Hydrogen is also an essential feedstock for the hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and catalytic reforming of varioushydrocarbon …


Improving H2O Measurement in Catalytic Reformer Hydrogen Recycle Streams

On-line, real-time moisture measurements in catalytic reformer hydrogen recycle gas streams help refineries assess catalyst condition and improve process control during normal operation, in-situ catalyst regeneration and dry down.


Analyzing The Analyzer – Metrology In Natural Gas Pipelines

Upstream, you have producers and gas processors that deliver natural gas to fill the growing demand for the clean-burning fuel. Downstream, you have hundreds of miles of pipeline infrastructure to deliver the gas to market. In between, at the points of custody transfer, are the multitudes of analyzers that ensure contaminants such as H2S are at low enough levels to protect the pipelines and keep the public safe. This critical measurement prevents corrosion, which in the worst case can lead to pipeline rupture. What if the supplier and user each use a different analyzer? Well, there is a saying in the natural gas industry, “If you have one analyzer you have a measurement, if you have two analyzers, you have an argument.” “Sometimes, you will have a dispute when two different companies are using two different brands,” observed Hunter Brown, …


Analyzing the analyzer— Metrology in gas pipelines

J. Apgar, Contributing Writer, Chino Hills, California  Upstream, gas producers and processors deliver natural gas to fill growing demand for the clean-burning fuel. Downstream, hundreds of miles of pipeline infrastructure deliver the gas to market. In between, at the points of custody transfer, are multitudes of analyzers ensuring that contaminants, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), are low enough to protect the pipelines and the public (Fig. 1). This critical measurement prevents corrosion, which, in the worst case, can lead to pipeline rupture. What happens if the gas supplier and user each use a different H2S analyzer? There is a saying in the natural gas industry: “If you have one analyzer, you have a measurement; if you have two analyzers, you have an argument.” Hunter Brown, a measurement control supervisor for Access Midstream, explains this saying: “Sometimes, you will have a …


NASA Based Technology Keeps Contaminants Out of Gas Pipelines

Reliable NASA-based gas analyzer technology keeps natural gas producers aware of moisture content before entering El Paso Natural Gas Company Pipeline – helping producers avoid expensive shut-ins


Gas Analyzer Technology Boosts Potential For Converting Biogas To Electric Power

The ability of advanced, laser-based sensors to detect moisture, hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants in gases can smooth the way for biogas as a resource for electric utilities.   Wouldn’t it be great if some of the expensive green power programs you hear about actually worked? Experts and financiers are predicting it will take billions of investment dollars and decades to get any meaningful quantity of energy from alternative resources.   Perhaps not. One of the oldest and most widespread forms of potential energy — methane gas — promises to give those efforts a sizable boost — right now.   The main component of “natural gas,” methane is found in abundance in many places other than subterranean gas wells. Landfills, oil pipelines, pasturelands, forests and waste treatment plants all contain methane or the biomass from which methane can be formed. …


Improve process control in gas plants using tunable diode laser spectroscopy

Tunable diode laser (TDL)-based analyzers (Fig. 1) are increasingly being used in these “pain-point” analytical applications to measure contaminants reliably while reducing maintenance and operating costs.   TDL absorption spectroscopy uses a laser mounted behind a window that protects it from the wear and tear of caustic gas contents while enabling the analyzer to accurately and quickly read varying gas concentrations. The laser does not come into contact with the gas and calibration does not change or drift over time.   Dependable H2O analysis. Impurities, such as H2O and corrosive acids found in many gas streams, are the nemesis of conventional sensors that are directly exposed to the gas stream and those harmful elements.  Over time—and sometimes within a few weeks—those probes become damaged and inaccurate, resulting in costly repair or replacement. In the meantime, corrosion and contamination from problematic …