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Process Raman Gas Analysis in Ammonia Production and Refining

AbstractOn-line process measurement of the composition of gas streams in refining, fertilizer, and other manufacturingindustries is essential for the optimal operation of different process units within these facilities. Processanalyzers based on gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrochemical technologies are commonly used in these facilities. However, process conditions for certain streams present major challenges for these traditional technologies. Techniques based on optical spectroscopy, including near-infrared (NIR), infrared (dispersive and Fourier transform), and Raman spectroscopy, can provide analysis solutions for these challenging stream conditions. Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for streams containing homonucleardiatomic gases, such as H2 and N2. These gases are key components in many chemical processes involving the creation and use of syngas (H2, CO, and CO2), such as the manufacturing of ammonia and methanol. Hydrogen is also an essential feedstock for the hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and catalytic reforming of varioushydrocarbon …

Analyzing the analyzer— Metrology in gas pipelines

J. Apgar, Contributing Writer, Chino Hills, California  Upstream, gas producers and processors deliver natural gas to fill growing demand for the clean-burning fuel. Downstream, hundreds of miles of pipeline infrastructure deliver the gas to market. In between, at the points of custody transfer, are multitudes of analyzers ensuring that contaminants, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), are low enough to protect the pipelines and the public (Fig. 1). This critical measurement prevents corrosion, which, in the worst case, can lead to pipeline rupture. What happens if the gas supplier and user each use a different H2S analyzer? There is a saying in the natural gas industry: “If you have one analyzer, you have a measurement; if you have two analyzers, you have an argument.” Hunter Brown, a measurement control supervisor for Access Midstream, explains this saying: “Sometimes, you will have a …